Difference between revisions of "Clarté dans la nuit"

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|Texte='''Preamble: Return to the Tombstone of Louis Braille'''<br />Lettering superimposed on an image of a park. Music with a hint of melancholy played by string instruments is heard throughout most of the sequence. A man and two children walk down a wide path. Viewers suspect, based on the little boy’s gaze that he is blind. They turn and enter into a cemetery. The little girl hesitates and barely avoids walking into a headstone, which indicates to viewers that she too is blind. Finally, the man’s posture and gait leads viewers to the same conclusion. Together, they make their way to a tombstone on which both children place a bouquet of flowers. The boy moves with more assurance than the little girl who slides her hand over the tombstone before setting her bouquet down and cautiously making her way back to where the man (the grandfather of the children?) is standing. Close-up of Louis Braille’s name inscribed on the tombstone. (It is worth noting that in 1955, the year the TV show was produced, Louis Braille’s tomb in Coupvray (Seine-et-Marne) only contained his hands: the rest of his body had already been transferred to the Panthéon in 1952.<br />Commentary: "Louis Braille […]. It is he who gave us light. Never forget what we have thanks to him”.(02’14)<br />'''Kindergarten for Blind Children'''<br />The upbeat music of a transverse flute plays in the background. The same two children are seen in a classroom. The little girl feeds a bird in a cage while the boy strokes a stuffed chicken placed before him. Male voice-over (the grandfather?): “Both of you are luckier than I was. Today, people help you to discover the world from a young age”. The rest of TV show serves to illustrate this statement.< br/>Various hands-on classroom activities occupy the other students: some discover stuffed animals, solve puzzles whereby they stack or insert objects, fill buckets with sand, etc. A boy stands up and feels his way to a wooden horse that he mounts with some difficulty. He rocks back and forth with a grin with his head always tilted down in the direction of the floor. Wide shot of the classroom that brings the teacher into the frame of the camera. In one of the following shots, she is seen speaking (telling a story?) to students gathered around her. (04’02)<br />'''Primary School: Learning How to Read, Write and Do Arithmetic'''<br />Softer music plays that is more subdued than in the previous sequence. Commentary: "Before Braille, the blind had to recognise each letter of the alphabet by its raised shape. Few managed to do so”. (This is notably in reference to Valentin Haüy’s tangible reading method consisting of fabric letters sown on paper, which enabled the blind to learn how to read but not to write). “At the age of 15, he invented a valid method that could be applied to reading, writing, arithmetic and music, which was immediately adopted by blind people throughout the world". His statue glistens in the spotlight. Close-up of the Braille alphabet. "240 methods have since tried to replace this method. Each time, we’ve had to come back to the Braille method”. The voice-over continues to speak to the two children from the start and offers them a message of hope: “You will both learn how to write”. A little girl places a sheet of paper on a metal slate and closes the frame to fasten it in place in preparation to write in Braille. The hands of the teacher correct the way she holds her stylus. The teacher briefly does the same with other children. She is also clearly blind.<br />Travelling shot on children systematically placing small cubes into a tray with slots arranged in a grid. This is likely a learning exercise in numeration.<br/ >Read-aloud session with the same blind teacher. Wide shot of all students taking out a large, thick book from below their desk followed by a close-up of a little girl whose fluid reading arouses admiration among viewers. The movement of the left hand, which locates the start of each line, and of the right hand, which quickly passes over each line of raised points, is easily observed. Side shot of the teacher who follows along and then of all the students who all seem to be in deep concentration. (06’04)<br />'''Education Continues beyond Primary School'''<br />Anatomy lesson using an anatomical model. The students are all adolescent boys. Plastic intestines are passed from one student to the next. The teacher is also blind. He runs his fingers over the organ to recognise it. The commentary mentions the possibility of learning autonomously: “Today, you can advance on your own and acquire a deep understanding of the human body, for instance”. However, up until now, the show has not shown a blind student learning autonomously. A teacher is always present to guide students or structure learning.<br />Geography with raised globes and maps of France. Mathematics with raised geometrical drawings in a book. The commentary specifies that all scientific disciplines are within their grasp. The TV show seeks to show that subjects traditionally taught in schools are adapted to suit blind students. The viewer thus gathers that they will soon acquire the same knowledge as any other student. (06’44)<br />'''Transition: Break'''<br />In the school playground, girls form a circle whereas others stroll arm in arm.(07’02)<br />'''Beyond Core Subjects: Education in Music'''<br />Medium shot of Jean Langlais, composer and organist, who “will be among your teachers”. This piece of information makes it possible to identify the institution where the show is filmed. It is the Royal Institution for Blind Youth in Paris where Jean Langlais taught. Full-face shot of the teacher who conducts a choir of adolescents and young adults singing one of his “Kyrie”. Shot of the hands of young girls following sheet music in Braille and then of people using a slight high angle shot that nevertheless shows them in full. For viewers who have some experience in choir singing, the scene captured in the wide shot appears to be out of the ordinary. The choirmaster keeps time in rigid and cliché manner for the choristers and an organist who cannot see his movements. Is this really how it takes place in reality or is it simply recreated for the sake of viewers? (08’00)<br />'''Professional Training'''<br />The soft music of string instruments plays once again. Commentary: “Music is not the only thing in life. People have to live and work”. Various artisanal workshops are shown: sewing (with sewing machines), brush making, reseating and basketwork. Other trades are presented: woodturner, switchboard operator, typist and stenotype operator. The blind are concentrated on their movements, indifferent to everything else going on around them.<br />Longer sequence on the possibility of learning to become a masseur. A blind teacher walks in a classroom, surrounded by students manipulating bones. The teacher manipulates the arm of a skeleton: demonstrating antipulsion followed by abduction (for whom is this demonstration intended? The students cannot see it). Dissolve to the same teacher performing the same movements on a man. This time a student approaches and places his hands on the shoulder and forearm of the man to feel the movement of the articulation. The reasons for giving anatomy classes to adolescents in a previous sequence (06’05) are now clear to viewers.<br />Similarly, an explanation for giving music classes to blind youth is then provided: so that they can become a piano tuner. The voice-over stresses the complexity of the inner workings of the instrument (85 keys, each triggering the movement of 173 parts), perhaps to arouse viewer admiration given the challenge of learning such a trade, especially without sight. Another possible career in music: professional pianist or organist, provided you have a gift for music. The word “gift” pronounced here suddenly calls to mind a word that is not pronounced once in all the film: “disability”.<br />The organ teacher is “Mr” André Marchal, “the famous organist from Sainte-Eustache in Paris”. (It is interesting to note that other musicians referred to by name are not addressed as “Mr”. Is this a sign of special admiration on the part of Jacques Mamy who contributed to making the show?) (12’07)<br /> '''Professional Life'''<br />Occupations taken up by blind people are mentioned: switchboard operator, printer, masseur, worker in a soap factory, etc. For each occupation, emphasis is either placed on the level achieved by the blind in their line of work (the switchboard operator notably works for a large company, the masseur holds a state diploma, etc.) or the fact that the blind community does not rely on sighted people (blind people oversee the printing of books in Braille; at the soap factory, only the supervisor can see, etc.). Sequence lasting approximately 90 seconds depicting work in a soap factory, beginning with the preparation of glycerine and leading right up to the packaging of soap. The words “canne blanche” (white cane) are carved into each bar of soap. The sequence ends with a call to charity made in a low and slightly pleading tone: “And, if you stumble upon soap or any other product made by the blind, buy it. You will be ultimately giving these men and women what they want most: not pity but work”. This is the only moment in the TV show where the voice-over does not address blind youth but (sighted) viewers. (14’48)<br />'''The Blind Castellan'''<br />View of a manor. A man walks towards some farm buildings. His name is Jean Séverin. In all of the film, he is the only blind person portrayed as having true autonomy. He gets around with ease. “Alone, he is responsible for and manages a large farm”. He knows how to care for and recognises the age of each of his “800 plus sheep” by their ear markings. Dressed as a gentleman farmer, he goes to visit his fields on horseback. The people working the land come to say hello. This is how he makes his way across his “two hundred hectares of fields that he knows by heart”, using his hearing to orient himself. The slight low angle shot showing Jean Séverin on horseback (16’50) brings to mind the image of a lone cowboy in a western and transforms this blind farmer into a larger-than-life hero, one who never hesitates nor loses his way. (17’56)<br />'''Other Exceptional Blind People: Two Musicians'''<br />- Organist Gaston Litaize, Prix de Rome for music<br />- Jacques Mamy, one of the authors of the show and composer of its original soundtrack. Piano soloist, he performs in grand concerts. He is the producer and host of the radio programme ''Clarté dans la nuit'', a programme “dedicated to the blind” in which he performs compositions by blind musicians (is this an opportunity to subtly promote the programme?).<br />Contrary to the previous sequence, the blindness of these men is evident: G. Litaize runs his hand along the wall to reach the organ and J. Mamy is filmed making a speech that he reads in Braille.<br />Jacques Mamy is seen conducting a chamber orchestra for two minutes. Some musicians are clearly blind (black glasses). The music provokes contemplation, makes viewers all the more mindful of the performers’ tense expression, as if they had access to their inner being. (20’22)<br />'''Return to the Tombstone of Louis Braille'''<br />The music continues. The elderly man exits the cemetery with the two children. They make their way up the same path they came down in the opening scene. The path before them is straight and seemingly without obstacles.
+
|Texte='''Preamble: Return to the Tombstone of Louis Braille'''<br />Lettering superimposed on an image of a park. Music with a hint of melancholy played by string instruments is heard throughout most of the sequence. A man and two children walk down a wide path. Viewers suspect, based on the little boy’s gaze that he is blind. They turn and enter into a cemetery. The little girl hesitates and barely avoids walking into a headstone, which indicates to viewers that she too is blind. Finally, the man’s posture and gait leads viewers to the same conclusion. Together, they make their way to a tombstone on which both children place a bouquet of flowers. The boy moves with more assurance than the little girl who slides her hand over the tombstone before setting her bouquet down and cautiously making her way back to where the man (the grandfather of the children?) is standing. Close-up of Louis Braille’s name inscribed on the tombstone. (It is worth noting that in 1955, the year the TV show was produced, Louis Braille’s tomb in Coupvray (Seine-et-Marne) only contained his hands: the rest of his body had already been transferred to the Panthéon in 1952.<br />Commentary: "Louis Braille […]. It is he who gave us light. Never forget what we have thanks to him”.(02’14)<br />'''Kindergarten for Blind Children'''<br />The upbeat music of a transverse flute plays in the background. The same two children are seen in a classroom. The little girl feeds a bird in a cage while the boy strokes a stuffed chicken placed before him. Male voice-over (the grandfather?): “Both of you are luckier than I was. Today, people help you to discover the world from a young age”. The rest of TV show serves to illustrate this statement.< br/>Various hands-on classroom activities occupy the other students: some discover stuffed animals, solve puzzles whereby they stack or insert objects, fill buckets with sand, etc. A boy stands up and feels his way to a wooden horse that he mounts with some difficulty. He rocks back and forth with a grin with his head always tilted down in the direction of the floor. Wide shot of the classroom that brings the teacher into the frame of the camera. In one of the following shots, she is seen speaking (telling a story?) to students gathered around her. (04’02)<br />'''Primary School: Learning How to Read, Write and Do Arithmetic'''<br />Softer music plays that is more subdued than in the previous sequence. Commentary: "Before Braille, the blind had to recognise each letter of the alphabet by its raised shape. Few managed to do so”. (This is notably in reference to Valentin Haüy’s tangible reading method consisting of fabric letters sown on paper, which enabled the blind to learn how to read but not to write). “At the age of 15, he invented a valid method that could be applied to reading, writing, arithmetic and music, which was immediately adopted by blind people throughout the world". His statue glistens in the spotlight. Close-up of the Braille alphabet. "240 methods have since tried to replace this method. Each time, we’ve had to come back to the Braille method”. The voice-over continues to speak to the two children from the start and offers them a message of hope: “You will both learn how to write”. A little girl places a sheet of paper on a metal slate and closes the frame to fasten it in place in preparation to write in Braille. The hands of the teacher correct the way she holds her stylus. The teacher briefly does the same with other children. She is also clearly blind.<br />Travelling shot on children systematically placing small cubes into a tray with slots arranged in a grid. This is likely a learning exercise in numeration.<br />Read-aloud session with the same blind teacher. Wide shot of all students taking out a large, thick book from below their desk followed by a close-up of a little girl whose fluid reading arouses admiration among viewers. The movement of the left hand, which locates the start of each line, and of the right hand, which quickly passes over each line of raised points, is easily observed. Side shot of the teacher who follows along and then of all the students who all seem to be in deep concentration. (06’04)<br />'''Education Continues beyond Primary School'''<br />Anatomy lesson using an anatomical model. The students are all adolescent boys. Plastic intestines are passed from one student to the next. The teacher is also blind. He runs his fingers over the organ to recognise it. The commentary mentions the possibility of learning autonomously: “Today, you can advance on your own and acquire a deep understanding of the human body, for instance”. However, up until now, the show has not shown a blind student learning autonomously. A teacher is always present to guide students or structure learning.<br />Geography with raised globes and maps of France. Mathematics with raised geometrical drawings in a book. The commentary specifies that all scientific disciplines are within their grasp. The TV show seeks to show that subjects traditionally taught in schools are adapted to suit blind students. The viewer thus gathers that they will soon acquire the same knowledge as any other student. (06’44)<br />'''Transition: Break'''<br />In the school playground, girls form a circle whereas others stroll arm in arm.(07’02)<br />'''Beyond Core Subjects: Education in Music'''<br />Medium shot of Jean Langlais, composer and organist, who “will be among your teachers”. This piece of information makes it possible to identify the institution where the show is filmed. It is the Royal Institution for Blind Youth in Paris where Jean Langlais taught. Full-face shot of the teacher who conducts a choir of adolescents and young adults singing one of his “Kyrie”. Shot of the hands of young girls following sheet music in Braille and then of people using a slight high angle shot that nevertheless shows them in full. For viewers who have some experience in choir singing, the scene captured in the wide shot appears to be out of the ordinary. The choirmaster keeps time in rigid and cliché manner for the choristers and an organist who cannot see his movements. Is this really how it takes place in reality or is it simply recreated for the sake of viewers? (08’00)<br />'''Professional Training'''<br />The soft music of string instruments plays once again. Commentary: “Music is not the only thing in life. People have to live and work”. Various artisanal workshops are shown: sewing (with sewing machines), brush making, reseating and basketwork. Other trades are presented: woodturner, switchboard operator, typist and stenotype operator. The blind are concentrated on their movements, indifferent to everything else going on around them.<br />Longer sequence on the possibility of learning to become a masseur. A blind teacher walks in a classroom, surrounded by students manipulating bones. The teacher manipulates the arm of a skeleton: demonstrating antipulsion followed by abduction (for whom is this demonstration intended? The students cannot see it). Dissolve to the same teacher performing the same movements on a man. This time a student approaches and places his hands on the shoulder and forearm of the man to feel the movement of the articulation. The reasons for giving anatomy classes to adolescents in a previous sequence (06’05) are now clear to viewers.<br />Similarly, an explanation for giving music classes to blind youth is then provided: so that they can become a piano tuner. The voice-over stresses the complexity of the inner workings of the instrument (85 keys, each triggering the movement of 173 parts), perhaps to arouse viewer admiration given the challenge of learning such a trade, especially without sight. Another possible career in music: professional pianist or organist, provided you have a gift for music. The word “gift” pronounced here suddenly calls to mind a word that is not pronounced once in all the film: “disability”.<br />The organ teacher is “Mr” André Marchal, “the famous organist from Sainte-Eustache in Paris”. (It is interesting to note that other musicians referred to by name are not addressed as “Mr”. Is this a sign of special admiration on the part of Jacques Mamy who contributed to making the show?) (12’07)<br /> '''Professional Life'''<br />Occupations taken up by blind people are mentioned: switchboard operator, printer, masseur, worker in a soap factory, etc. For each occupation, emphasis is either placed on the level achieved by the blind in their line of work (the switchboard operator notably works for a large company, the masseur holds a state diploma, etc.) or the fact that the blind community does not rely on sighted people (blind people oversee the printing of books in Braille; at the soap factory, only the supervisor can see, etc.). Sequence lasting approximately 90 seconds depicting work in a soap factory, beginning with the preparation of glycerine and leading right up to the packaging of soap. The words “canne blanche” (white cane) are carved into each bar of soap. The sequence ends with a call to charity made in a low and slightly pleading tone: “And, if you stumble upon soap or any other product made by the blind, buy it. You will be ultimately giving these men and women what they want most: not pity but work”. This is the only moment in the TV show where the voice-over does not address blind youth but (sighted) viewers. (14’48)<br />'''The Blind Castellan'''<br />View of a manor. A man walks towards some farm buildings. His name is Jean Séverin. In all of the film, he is the only blind person portrayed as having true autonomy. He gets around with ease. “Alone, he is responsible for and manages a large farm”. He knows how to care for and recognises the age of each of his “800 plus sheep” by their ear markings. Dressed as a gentleman farmer, he goes to visit his fields on horseback. The people working the land come to say hello. This is how he makes his way across his “two hundred hectares of fields that he knows by heart”, using his hearing to orient himself. The slight low angle shot showing Jean Séverin on horseback (16’50) brings to mind the image of a lone cowboy in a western and transforms this blind farmer into a larger-than-life hero, one who never hesitates nor loses his way. (17’56)<br />'''Other Exceptional Blind People: Two Musicians'''<br />- Organist Gaston Litaize, Prix de Rome for music<br />- Jacques Mamy, one of the authors of the show and composer of its original soundtrack. Piano soloist, he performs in grand concerts. He is the producer and host of the radio programme ''Clarté dans la nuit'', a programme “dedicated to the blind” in which he performs compositions by blind musicians (is this an opportunity to subtly promote the programme?).<br />Contrary to the previous sequence, the blindness of these men is evident: G. Litaize runs his hand along the wall to reach the organ and J. Mamy is filmed making a speech that he reads in Braille.<br />Jacques Mamy is seen conducting a chamber orchestra for two minutes. Some musicians are clearly blind (black glasses). The music provokes contemplation, makes viewers all the more mindful of the performers’ tense expression, as if they had access to their inner being. (20’22)<br />'''Return to the Tombstone of Louis Braille'''<br />The music continues. The elderly man exits the cemetery with the two children. They make their way up the same path they came down in the opening scene. The path before them is straight and seemingly without obstacles.
 
}}
 
}}
 
|Notes complémentaires={{HT_Notes
 
|Notes complémentaires={{HT_Notes

Revision as of 12:55, 13 July 2019

 

Clarté dans la nuit


Pour voir ce film dans son intégralité veuillez vous connecter.

Title Clarté dans la nuit
Year of production 1955
Country of production France
Director(s) Pierre Zimmer
Scientific advisor(s)
Duration 22 minutes
Format Parlant - Noir et blanc - 16 mm
Original language(s) French
Production companies Les films du chapiteau
Commissioning body CNDP
Archive holder(s) CNDPUniversité Paris 3

Main credits

(français)
Une production Les Films du chapiteau
Clarté dans la nuit
Scénario de Jacques Mamy et Pierre Zimmer
Images de Pierre Petit
Musiques additionnelles de Jacques Mamy - Producteur de l'émission de l'émission de la RTF "Clarté dans la nuit"
Commentaire de Pierre Zimmer dit par Jean Debucourt, sociétaire de la Comédie Française
Montage de Christian Gaudin

Directeur de production Léopold Schlosberg
Réalisation de Pierre Zimmer

« Ce film a reçu le visa du Ministère de l'Education Nationale par la Commission du Cinéma d'enseignement »

Présenté par : Ministère de l'Education Nationale – Centre National de documentation pédagogique – Cinémathèque de l'enseignement

Content

Medical themes

Theme

(français)
Formation scolaire et professionnelle des jeunes aveugles, dans la droite ligne des principes de Louis Braille.

Schooling and professional training for blind youth in line with the principles established by Louis Braille

Main genre

Documentaire

Synopsis

(français)
Présentation des méthodes d'enseignement qui, grâce aux travaux de Louis Braille, permettent aux jeunes aveugles d'avoir accès à la diversité des disciplines de l'enseignement classique, de la culture artistique et de la formation professionnelle puis d'exercer un métier. Il s'agit d'un message d'espoir qui promet aux aveugles une ouverture sur tous les possibles. Le souvenir de Braille est évoqué avec émotion et reconnaissance tout au long de l'émission.

The film presents teaching methods that, thanks to the work of Louis Braille, enable blind youth not only to gain access to the various disciplines making up traditional education, artistic culture as well as professional training but also to enter the workforce. It is a message of hope that promises the blind a future filled with possibilities. Braille’s memory lives on as he is remembered with emotion and gratitude throughout the film. xxx

Context

(français)
La première école pour les enfants aveugles est fondée par Valentin Haüy (1745-1822) à Paris en 1784. Surnommé le "premier instituteur des aveugles", il est influencé entre autres par la philosophie des Lumières (notamment Diderot et sa Lettre sur les aveugles à l'usage de ceux qui voient) et par l'abbé de l'Épée (inventeur de l'alphabet digital pour les personnes sourdes). Ensuite il ouvre à Paris l'Institut Royal des Enfants Aveugles où les élèves peuvent non seulement apprendre à lire au moyen de "lettres tangibles" mais aussi apprendre un métier. Plus tard, cet institut est transféré à l'emplacement de l'actuel Institut National des Jeunes Aveugles. Les leçons de musique y sont déjà présentes. C'est dans cette institution où Louis Braille sera élève et professeur qu'il inventera son alphabet. D'autres instituts sont créés au XIXe siècle par des congrégations religieuses. Généralement, ils accueillent à la fois des élèves aveugles et des élèves sourds même si on leur applique des pédagogies différentes.
Pendant une grande partie du XXe siècle, l'enseignement des aveugles est du ressort du ministère de la Santé (et non pas de l'Instruction publique). Quelques classes pour "amblyopes" sont ouvertes au sein d'écoles primaires de la Ville de Paris mais la plupart des aveugles restent cantonnés aux établissements spécialisés. La loi d'orientation pour l'éducation de 1975 "en faveur des personnes handicapées" marque un tournant. Tous les enfants sont soumis à l'obligation éducative et reçoivent une éducation ordinaire ou "à défaut, une éducation spéciale".

The first school for blind children was founded by Valentin Haüy (1745-1822) in Paris in 1784. Nicknamed the “first teacher of the blind”, he was influenced, in part, by the philosophy of Enlightenment (especially by Diderot and his Lettre sur les aveugles à l’usage de ceux qui voient [Letter on the Blind for the Use of Those Who Can See]) and by the Abbé de l’Épée (inventor of the manual alphabet for the deaf). Haüy opened the Royal Institution for Blind Youth in Paris where students could learn not only to read using “tangible letters” but also a trade. Shortly after, the institute was transferred to the site of the current day National Institution for Blind Youth. At that time, music lessons were already being taught there. It was in this institution where Louis Braille studied, taught and eventually invented his alphabet. Other institutions were created in the 19th century by religious congregations. Generally, these institutions welcomed both blind students and deaf students even though different teaching methods were applied accordingly.
During a large part of the 20th century, educating the blind was the responsibility of the Ministry of Health (and not the Ministry of Education). A few classes for those with impaired or dim vision were offered within primary schools run by the City of Paris, but the majority of blind students remained confined to specialised institutions. The law on education of 1975 “in favour of disabled people” marked a turning point. All children were subject to mandatory education and received a regular education or “otherwise, a special education”.

Structuring elements of the film

  • Reporting footage  : Yes.
  • Set footage  : No.
  • Archival footage  : Yes.
  • Animated sequences  : No.
  • Intertitles  : No.
  • Host  : No.
  • Voice-over  : Yes.
  • Interview  : No.
  • Music and sound effects : Yes.
  • Images featured in other films : No.

How does the film direct the viewer’s attention?

(français)
Étonnamment, alors que ce film a manifestement été tourné pour un public voyant (télévision scolaire des années 50), la voix off s'adresse en permanence à de jeunes aveugles (en l’occurrence, les deux enfants qui accompagnent l'homme âgé sur la tombe de Louis Braille tout au début). Cela donne au spectateur l'impression d'une plongée (un peu voyeuse ?) dans un monde dont il n'est généralement pas partie prenante, peut-être dans l'intention de conférer un cachet d'authenticité à cette émission.

Des adultes aveugles actifs professionnellement (une institutrice, un professeur d'anatomie, un masseur, des musiciens, un éleveur, un standardiste, les ouvriers d'une savonnerie, etc) jalonnent l'émission. Certains d'entre eux sont même cités nommément (Jean Langlais, Jacques Mamy, Jean Séverin, Gaston Litaize). Ils donnent un exemple d'accomplissement professionnel voire de grande réussite malgré le handicap et appuient le message d'espoir et d'ouverture sur tous les possibles véhiculé par le film. On remarquera néanmoins que les personnes aveugles sont essentiellement représentées comme vivant entre elles, en vase clos et que la question de leur socialisation et adaptation au monde extérieur n'est pas abordée du tout.

La séquence de fin sur l’émission musicale est une surprise certainement aménagée pour relancer l’intérêt du spectateur, lui faire comprendre tout l’enjeu d’une éducation artistique des personnes aveugles comme si elles étaient douées d’une sensibilité particulière qui les y rendait mieux disposées. On se rappellera néanmoins d'une part, que les leçons de musique font partie de la formation des jeunes aveugles depuis la création des premiers instituts spécialisés et d'autre part, que Louis Braille ayant adapté son alphabet à la transcription de partitions de musique (Notation musicale braille internationale) et ayant été lui-même un organiste de talent, il est peut-être compréhensible que la formation des jeunes aveugles comporte un volet musical aussi important.

Surprisingly, while the film was clearly shot for a sighted audience (school television in the 50s), the voice-over constantly addresses blind youth (in this case, the two children who accompany the elderly man to the tombstone of Louis Braille at the very start of the film). This opens viewers eyes to a world generally unfamiliar to them (in a slightly voyeuristic way?), perhaps in an effort to give the TV show a stamp of authenticity.
Blind, professionally active adults (a teacher, an anatomy professor, a masseur, musicians, a farmer, a switchboard operator, workers in a soap factory, etc.) punctuate the TV show. Some are even referred to by name: Jean Langlais, Jacques Mamy, Jean Séverin and Gaston Litaize. They are an example of professional fulfilment and even huge success despite the disability and lend support to the message of hope and endless possibilities conveyed throughout the film. Viewers nevertheless notice that the blind are primarily portrayed as living among themselves, in a bubble, and that their socialisation and adjustment to the outside world is not addressed at all.
The final sequence showing the musical programme is a surprise that surely aims to reignite viewers’ interest and make them understand the significance of providing the blind with an arts education. It gives viewers the impression that the blind are endowed with a particular sensitivity to music, thus giving them an edge in this art form. Nevertheless, viewers should keep in mind that music lessons have been part of schooling for blind youth since the first specialised institutions opened their doors and that Louis Braille not only adapted his alphabet to the transcription of sheet music (International Braille Music Notation) but also was a talented organist himself. It is therefore not so surprising that the education of blind youth includes such a strong musical component.

How are health and medicine portrayed?

(français)

Broadcasting and reception

Where is the film screened?

(français)
Etablissements scolaires

Schools

Presentations and events associated with the film

(français)

Audience

(français)
Scolaire

School audience

Local, national, or international audience

Description

(français)
Préambule : retour sur la tombe de Braille
Lettrages en surimpression d'une image de parc. Musique un peu mélancolique jouée par des instruments à cordes pendant presque toute cette séquence. Un homme et deux enfants avancent dans l'allée principale. On reconnaît au port de tête du garçonnet qu'il est aveugle. Ils prennent l'une des allées qui mènent aux tombes d'un cimetière. La fillette hésite et manque de se cogner contre une stèle funéraire, ce qui indique au spectateur qu'elle n'y voit pas non plus. Enfin, la posture et la démarche de côté de l'homme permettent d'arriver à la même conclusion. Ils se dirigent tous trois vers une tombe. Les enfants y déposent chacun leur bouquet de fleurs. Les gestes du garçonnet sont plus assurés que ceux de la fillette qui fait glisser sa main sur toute la longueur de la tombe avant de poser ses fleurs et a un peu plus de mal à revenir vers l'homme (le grand-père des enfants ?) Gros plan sur le nom de Louis Braille gravé sur la pierre tombale. (On notera qu'en 1955, date de production de cette émission, la tombe de Louis Braille à Coupvray (Seine-et-Marne) ne contient plus que ses mains, le reste de son corps ayant été transféré au Panthéon en 1952.)

Commentaire : « Louis Braille. (...) C'est lui qui nous a donné de la lumière. N'oubliez jamais ce que nous lui devons. » (02'14)
L'école maternelle pour les enfants aveugles
Musique joyeuse à la flute traversière. On retrouve les deux enfants dans une salle de classe. La petite nourrit un petit perroquet en cage tandis que le garçon passe ses mains sur une poule posée devant lui. La voix de l'homme (le grand-père ?) en off se fait entendre de nouveau : "Vous avez plus de chance que moi, tous les deux. Aujourd'hui on vous aide tout petits à découvrir le monde." Le reste de l'émission s'emploie à illustrer cette phrase.
D'autres élèves sont occupés à diverses manipulations : découverte d'un animal empaillé, seaux gigognes, encastrements, jeu avec du sable, etc. Un garçon se lève et rejoint en tâtonnant un cheval de bois sur lequel il monte avec un peu de difficulté. Il se balance et ébauche un sourire. Pendant tout ce temps, sa tête reste orientée vers le sol. Vue d'ensemble de la classe qui permet de voir l'institutrice. Sur l'un des plans suivants, elle parle (raconte une histoire ?) aux élèves rassemblés autour d'elle. (04'02)
L'école primaire, apprentissage de la lecture, de l'écriture et du calcul
Musique plus douce, plus retenue que dans la séquence précédente. Commentaire : « Avant Braille, les aveugles devaient arriver à reconnaître par le relief chaque lettre de l'alphabet. Peu y parvenaient. » (Il s'agit d'une référence notamment à la méthode de lecture tactile constituée de lettres en tissu cousues sur du papier de Valentin Haüy qui permettait aux aveugles d'apprendre à lire mais pas à écrire). « À 15 ans, il a inventé une méthode valable pour l'écriture, la lecture, le calcul et la musique, aussitôt employée par tous les aveugles du monde. » Le buste de Louis Braille luit sous la lumière d'un projecteur. GP sur l'alphabet braille. « 240 méthodes ont tenté depuis de remplacer celle-ci. Chaque fois il a fallu revenir à celle de Braille. » La voix off continue à s'adresser aux deux enfants du début et leur offre un message d'espoir : « Vous apprendrez à écrire tous les deux. » Un enfant pose une feuille de papier sur une tablette en métal et referme dessus un châssis pour se préparer à écrire en braille. Les mains d'une enseignante rectifient la façon dont l'enfant tient le poinçon. Elle fait de même, plus brièvement, avec d'autres enfants. Elle est manifestement aveugle également.
Travelling sur des enfants qui encastrent de façon très systématique de petits cubes dans un plateau muni de nombreuses cases disposées selon un quadrillage. Il s'agit probablement d'un exercice d'apprentissage de la numération.
Séance de lecture à haute voix, toujours avec l'enseignante aveugle. Plan d'ensemble sur les élèves qui sortent tous un grand livre épais de dessous leur banc puis plan rapproché sur une fillette dont la lecture courante suscite l'admiration du spectateur. Le mouvement de la main gauche qui repère le début de chaque ligne et de la main droite qui passe rapidement sur chaque ligne de points en relief est bien visible. Plan sur l'institutrice de profil qui suit de même puis sur l'ensemble des élèves qui donnent une impression de grande concentration. (06'04)
L'enseignement se poursuit au-delà du niveau de l'école primaire
Leçon d'anatomie à partir d'un mannequin. Les élèves sont des garçons adolescents. Les intestins en plastique passent de main en main. Le professeur est lui aussi aveugle, il tâte l’organe pour le reconnaître. Le commentaire évoque la possibilité d'un apprentissage autonome : « Aujourd'hui, vous pouvez faire des progrès par vous-mêmes, arriver à la connaissance détaillée du corps humain par exemple. » Cependant, jusqu'à présent, l'émission n'a pas vraiment montré d'élève aveugle en situation d'apprentissage autonome. Un enseignant est toujours présent pour le guider ou organiser l'apprentissage.
Géographie : globes terrestres et cartes de France en relief. Mathématiques avec des dessins géométriques en relief dans un livre. Le commentaire précise que toutes les matières scientifiques sont à leur portée. L'émission veut montrer que les matières de l'enseignement classique sont adaptées aux élèves non voyants. Le spectateur en déduit qu'ils vont acquérir bientôt un savoir équivalent à celui des autres élèves. (06'44)
Transition : la récréation
Dans la cour d'école, des filles forment une ronde, d'autres avancent bras dessus, bras dessous. (07'02)
Au-delà des matières fondamentales : l'enseignement musical
Plan moyen sur Jean Langlais, compositeur et organiste qui « comptera parmi vos professeurs. » Cet élément permet d'identifier l'institution dans laquelle est filmée cette émission. Il s'agit de l'Institut national des jeunes aveugles de Paris où Jean Langlais a enseigné. Plan de face sur le maître qui dirige un chœur d'adolescents et jeunes adultes en train de chanter l'un de ses Kyrie. Plan sur les mains des jeunes filles qui suivent les partitions en braille (on ne voit pas leur tête) puis sur les jeunes gens montrés en légère plongée de biais mais en entier. Pour un spectateur ayant une petite expérience du chant choral, le plan d'ensemble paraît insolite. Le chef de chœur bat la mesure de façon rigide et stéréotypée pour des choristes et un organiste qui ne peuvent pas voir ses gestes. Est-ce vraiment ainsi que cela se passe dans la réalité ou s'agit-il d'une reconstitution pour donner une impression de normalité ? (08'00)
Formation professionnelle
Reprise de la musique douce, instruments à cordes. Commentaire : « Il n'est pas que de la musique. Il faut vivre, avoir un métier. » Divers ateliers d'artisanat sont montrés : couture (avec machines à coudre), brosserie, rempaillage, vannerie. D'autres formations encore sont suggérées : tourneur sur bois, standardiste, dactylographe et sténotypiste. La personne aveugle est concentrée sur ses gestes, le reste de l’espace lui paraît indifférent.
Séquence plus longue sur la possibilité d'apprendre le métier de masseur. Un enseignant aveugle évolue au milieu d'étudiants en train de manipuler des os. L'enseignant manipule le bras d'un squelette : mouvement d'antépulsion puis abduction (à qui cette démonstration est-elle destinée ? les étudiants ne peuvent pas la voir), fondu-enchainé sur le même enseignant faisant faire les mêmes mouvements à un homme (cette fois-ci, un étudiant s'approche et pose les mains sur l'épaule et l'avant-bras de l'homme pour sentir le mouvement de l'articulation.) Le spectateur comprend ici la raison d'être du cours d'anatomie donné aux adolescents à (06'05).
De même, voici l'une des raisons d'être des cours de musique dispensés aux jeunes aveugles : la formation d'accordeur de piano. La voix off insiste sur la complexité du mécanisme de l'instrument (85 touches déclenchant chacune 173 pièces), peut-être dans le but de susciter l'admiration du spectateur devant la difficulté de cet apprentissage, difficulté encore augmentée par la cécité des apprentis. Autre possibilité de carrière musicale : devenir pianiste ou organiste professionnel, à condition d'avoir des dons (pour la musique). Le mot « don » prononcé ici fait tout à coup apparaître en creux un mot qui n'est pas prononcé une seule fois dans toute l'émission, celui de « handicap ».
Le professeur des élèves organistes est monsieur André Marchal, « le célèbre organiste de Saint-Eustache à Paris ». (On notera que les autres musiciens cités par leur nom ne sont pas appelés monsieur. Faut-il y voir l'expression d'une admiration particulière de la part du musicien Jacques Mamy qui a participé à la réalisation de l'émission ?) (12'07)
Vie professionnelle
Évocation de métiers exercés par des personnes aveugles : standardiste, imprimeur, masseur, ouvrier dans une savonnerie. Pour chaque métier, l'accent est mis soit sur le niveau atteint par la personne aveugle dans sa profession (le standardiste est responsable du standard d'une grande entreprise, le masseur est titulaire d'un diplôme d'état), soit sur le fait que la communauté des aveugles est autonome par rapport aux voyants (ce sont des aveugles qui assurent l'impression des livres en braille ; à la savonnerie, seul le contremaître y voit). Séquence de plusieurs dizaines de secondes sur le travail à la savonnerie (où sont utilisées de nombreuses machines) qui se termine par un appel à la charité fait sur un ton bas et légèrement suppliant : "Et, si on vous présente un savon ou tout autre produit du travail des aveugles, achetez-le. Vous ferez triompher ainsi la seule devise dont veulent ces hommes et ces femmes : pas de pitié mais du travail !" C'est le seul moment où la voix off ne s'adresse plus aux deux jeunes enfants aveugles mais aux spectateurs réels (voyants) de l'émission. (14'48)
Le châtelain aveugle
Vue d’un manoir. Un homme avance vers des bâtiments de ferme. Il s'appelle Jean Séverin. De toute l'émission, c'est la seule personne aveugle à être montrée comme ayant une véritable autonomie. Il se déplace avec beaucoup d'assurance. "Il assure seul la responsabilité et la direction de sa grande exploitation agricole." Il sait soigner et reconnaît à leurs marques l'âge de chacun de ses "plus de huit cent moutons". Habillé en gentleman farmer, il va visiter ses champs à cheval. Les paysans présents viennent le saluer. Il arpente ainsi ses "deux cents hectares de champs qu’il connaît par cœur" et se sert de son audition pour s'orienter. Le plan en légère contre-plongée où on voit Jean Séverin à cheval (16'50) fait penser à un cow-boy solitaire dans un western et transforme cet éleveur mal-voyant en héros plus grand que nature. D'ailleurs, jamais il n'hésite ni ne s'égare... (17'56)
Autres aveugles exceptionnels, deux musiciens
- L'organiste Gaston Litaize, grand Prix de Rome de musique
- Jacques Mamy, l'un des auteurs de l'émission et compositeur de sa bande originale. Pianiste soliste, il se produit dans de grands concerts. Il est producteur et présentateur de l’émission radiophonique Clarté dans la nuit, émission « consacrée aux aveugles » dans laquelle il interprète des compositions de musiciens aveugles (est-ce l'occasion de faire une discrète promotion de cette émission ?).
Contrairement à la séquence précédente, la cécité de ces hommes est apparente : G. Litaize passe la main le long du mur pour atteindre l'orgue et J. Mamy est filmé en train de faire un discours ou de donner une conférence qu'il lit en braille.
On voit Jacques Mamy diriger un orchestre de chambre pendant deux minutes. Certains des musiciens sont manifestement aveugles (lunettes noires). La musique invite au recueillement, rend davantage sensible à l’expression tendue des interprètes, comme si on avait accès à leur intériorité. (20'22)
Retour à la tombe de Braille.

La musique se prolonge. L’homme âgé ressort du cimetière avec les deux enfants. Ils reprennent en sens inverse l’allée qu’ils ont parcourue au premier plan. Le chemin qui s'ouvre devant eux est droit et apparemment sans embûche.

Preamble: Return to the Tombstone of Louis Braille
Lettering superimposed on an image of a park. Music with a hint of melancholy played by string instruments is heard throughout most of the sequence. A man and two children walk down a wide path. Viewers suspect, based on the little boy’s gaze that he is blind. They turn and enter into a cemetery. The little girl hesitates and barely avoids walking into a headstone, which indicates to viewers that she too is blind. Finally, the man’s posture and gait leads viewers to the same conclusion. Together, they make their way to a tombstone on which both children place a bouquet of flowers. The boy moves with more assurance than the little girl who slides her hand over the tombstone before setting her bouquet down and cautiously making her way back to where the man (the grandfather of the children?) is standing. Close-up of Louis Braille’s name inscribed on the tombstone. (It is worth noting that in 1955, the year the TV show was produced, Louis Braille’s tomb in Coupvray (Seine-et-Marne) only contained his hands: the rest of his body had already been transferred to the Panthéon in 1952.
Commentary: "Louis Braille […]. It is he who gave us light. Never forget what we have thanks to him”.(02’14)
Kindergarten for Blind Children
The upbeat music of a transverse flute plays in the background. The same two children are seen in a classroom. The little girl feeds a bird in a cage while the boy strokes a stuffed chicken placed before him. Male voice-over (the grandfather?): “Both of you are luckier than I was. Today, people help you to discover the world from a young age”. The rest of TV show serves to illustrate this statement.< br/>Various hands-on classroom activities occupy the other students: some discover stuffed animals, solve puzzles whereby they stack or insert objects, fill buckets with sand, etc. A boy stands up and feels his way to a wooden horse that he mounts with some difficulty. He rocks back and forth with a grin with his head always tilted down in the direction of the floor. Wide shot of the classroom that brings the teacher into the frame of the camera. In one of the following shots, she is seen speaking (telling a story?) to students gathered around her. (04’02)
Primary School: Learning How to Read, Write and Do Arithmetic
Softer music plays that is more subdued than in the previous sequence. Commentary: "Before Braille, the blind had to recognise each letter of the alphabet by its raised shape. Few managed to do so”. (This is notably in reference to Valentin Haüy’s tangible reading method consisting of fabric letters sown on paper, which enabled the blind to learn how to read but not to write). “At the age of 15, he invented a valid method that could be applied to reading, writing, arithmetic and music, which was immediately adopted by blind people throughout the world". His statue glistens in the spotlight. Close-up of the Braille alphabet. "240 methods have since tried to replace this method. Each time, we’ve had to come back to the Braille method”. The voice-over continues to speak to the two children from the start and offers them a message of hope: “You will both learn how to write”. A little girl places a sheet of paper on a metal slate and closes the frame to fasten it in place in preparation to write in Braille. The hands of the teacher correct the way she holds her stylus. The teacher briefly does the same with other children. She is also clearly blind.
Travelling shot on children systematically placing small cubes into a tray with slots arranged in a grid. This is likely a learning exercise in numeration.
Read-aloud session with the same blind teacher. Wide shot of all students taking out a large, thick book from below their desk followed by a close-up of a little girl whose fluid reading arouses admiration among viewers. The movement of the left hand, which locates the start of each line, and of the right hand, which quickly passes over each line of raised points, is easily observed. Side shot of the teacher who follows along and then of all the students who all seem to be in deep concentration. (06’04)
Education Continues beyond Primary School
Anatomy lesson using an anatomical model. The students are all adolescent boys. Plastic intestines are passed from one student to the next. The teacher is also blind. He runs his fingers over the organ to recognise it. The commentary mentions the possibility of learning autonomously: “Today, you can advance on your own and acquire a deep understanding of the human body, for instance”. However, up until now, the show has not shown a blind student learning autonomously. A teacher is always present to guide students or structure learning.
Geography with raised globes and maps of France. Mathematics with raised geometrical drawings in a book. The commentary specifies that all scientific disciplines are within their grasp. The TV show seeks to show that subjects traditionally taught in schools are adapted to suit blind students. The viewer thus gathers that they will soon acquire the same knowledge as any other student. (06’44)
Transition: Break
In the school playground, girls form a circle whereas others stroll arm in arm.(07’02)
Beyond Core Subjects: Education in Music
Medium shot of Jean Langlais, composer and organist, who “will be among your teachers”. This piece of information makes it possible to identify the institution where the show is filmed. It is the Royal Institution for Blind Youth in Paris where Jean Langlais taught. Full-face shot of the teacher who conducts a choir of adolescents and young adults singing one of his “Kyrie”. Shot of the hands of young girls following sheet music in Braille and then of people using a slight high angle shot that nevertheless shows them in full. For viewers who have some experience in choir singing, the scene captured in the wide shot appears to be out of the ordinary. The choirmaster keeps time in rigid and cliché manner for the choristers and an organist who cannot see his movements. Is this really how it takes place in reality or is it simply recreated for the sake of viewers? (08’00)
Professional Training
The soft music of string instruments plays once again. Commentary: “Music is not the only thing in life. People have to live and work”. Various artisanal workshops are shown: sewing (with sewing machines), brush making, reseating and basketwork. Other trades are presented: woodturner, switchboard operator, typist and stenotype operator. The blind are concentrated on their movements, indifferent to everything else going on around them.
Longer sequence on the possibility of learning to become a masseur. A blind teacher walks in a classroom, surrounded by students manipulating bones. The teacher manipulates the arm of a skeleton: demonstrating antipulsion followed by abduction (for whom is this demonstration intended? The students cannot see it). Dissolve to the same teacher performing the same movements on a man. This time a student approaches and places his hands on the shoulder and forearm of the man to feel the movement of the articulation. The reasons for giving anatomy classes to adolescents in a previous sequence (06’05) are now clear to viewers.
Similarly, an explanation for giving music classes to blind youth is then provided: so that they can become a piano tuner. The voice-over stresses the complexity of the inner workings of the instrument (85 keys, each triggering the movement of 173 parts), perhaps to arouse viewer admiration given the challenge of learning such a trade, especially without sight. Another possible career in music: professional pianist or organist, provided you have a gift for music. The word “gift” pronounced here suddenly calls to mind a word that is not pronounced once in all the film: “disability”.
The organ teacher is “Mr” André Marchal, “the famous organist from Sainte-Eustache in Paris”. (It is interesting to note that other musicians referred to by name are not addressed as “Mr”. Is this a sign of special admiration on the part of Jacques Mamy who contributed to making the show?) (12’07)
Professional Life
Occupations taken up by blind people are mentioned: switchboard operator, printer, masseur, worker in a soap factory, etc. For each occupation, emphasis is either placed on the level achieved by the blind in their line of work (the switchboard operator notably works for a large company, the masseur holds a state diploma, etc.) or the fact that the blind community does not rely on sighted people (blind people oversee the printing of books in Braille; at the soap factory, only the supervisor can see, etc.). Sequence lasting approximately 90 seconds depicting work in a soap factory, beginning with the preparation of glycerine and leading right up to the packaging of soap. The words “canne blanche” (white cane) are carved into each bar of soap. The sequence ends with a call to charity made in a low and slightly pleading tone: “And, if you stumble upon soap or any other product made by the blind, buy it. You will be ultimately giving these men and women what they want most: not pity but work”. This is the only moment in the TV show where the voice-over does not address blind youth but (sighted) viewers. (14’48)
The Blind Castellan
View of a manor. A man walks towards some farm buildings. His name is Jean Séverin. In all of the film, he is the only blind person portrayed as having true autonomy. He gets around with ease. “Alone, he is responsible for and manages a large farm”. He knows how to care for and recognises the age of each of his “800 plus sheep” by their ear markings. Dressed as a gentleman farmer, he goes to visit his fields on horseback. The people working the land come to say hello. This is how he makes his way across his “two hundred hectares of fields that he knows by heart”, using his hearing to orient himself. The slight low angle shot showing Jean Séverin on horseback (16’50) brings to mind the image of a lone cowboy in a western and transforms this blind farmer into a larger-than-life hero, one who never hesitates nor loses his way. (17’56)
Other Exceptional Blind People: Two Musicians
- Organist Gaston Litaize, Prix de Rome for music
- Jacques Mamy, one of the authors of the show and composer of its original soundtrack. Piano soloist, he performs in grand concerts. He is the producer and host of the radio programme Clarté dans la nuit, a programme “dedicated to the blind” in which he performs compositions by blind musicians (is this an opportunity to subtly promote the programme?).
Contrary to the previous sequence, the blindness of these men is evident: G. Litaize runs his hand along the wall to reach the organ and J. Mamy is filmed making a speech that he reads in Braille.
Jacques Mamy is seen conducting a chamber orchestra for two minutes. Some musicians are clearly blind (black glasses). The music provokes contemplation, makes viewers all the more mindful of the performers’ tense expression, as if they had access to their inner being. (20’22)
Return to the Tombstone of Louis Braille
The music continues. The elderly man exits the cemetery with the two children. They make their way up the same path they came down in the opening scene. The path before them is straight and seemingly without obstacles.

Supplementary notes

(français)
L'émission Clarté dans la nuit produite et/ou présentée par Jacques Mamy a été diffusée sur la chaîne nationale française par la Radio Diffusion Française (RDF) de 1948 à novembre 1963 puis par la Radio Télévision Française (RTF) à partir de 1964. Elle a été diffusée sur France Musique de 1963 à 1976.

The programme Clarté dans la nuit produced and/or hosted by Jacques Mamy was broadcast on the national French radio station by Radio Diffusion Française (RDF) from 1948 to November 1963 then by Radio Télévision Française (RTF) from 1964 onwards. It was broadcast on France Musique from 1963 to 1976.

References and external documents

(français)
DIDEROT D. Lettre sur les aveugles à l'usage de ceux qui voient. Londres, 1749

LEWI-DUMONT N. « De l'établissement charitable à l'inclusion ». In LEWI-DUMONT N., Enseigner à des élèves aveugles ou mal-voyants, Poitiers : Réseau Canopé et Suresnes : INS HEA, 2016

Nathalie Lewi-Dumont. Education et enseignement. Voir [barré], 2011, pp.98-105. �halshs-00731748�

DIDEROT D. Lettre sur les aveugles à l'usage de ceux qui voient. Londres, 1749

LEWI-DUMONT N. "De l'établissement charitable à l'inclusion". In LEWI-DUMONT N., Enseigner à des élèves aveugles ou mal-voyants, Poitiers: Réseau Canopé and Suresnes: INS HEA, 2016

Nathalie Lewi-Dumont. Education et enseignement. Voir [barré], 2011, pp.98-105. �halshs-00731748�


Contributors

  • Record written by : Joël Danet, Élisabeth Fuchs
  • Record translated into English by : Sherry Stanbury